Bursitis – is the inflammation of the bursa. Bursitis prevents friction of the muscles, tendons and bones.
Hip bursitis can be caused by trauma, physical overload of the muscles and tendons.
Adverse factors in the development of bursitis are also hypothermia, inactivity, obesity, and a marked leg length difference.
Usually three bursae are inflamed around the hip joint:
- Trochanteric bursa. It is located near the greater trochanter of the femur. This is called trochanteric bursitis or trochanteritis. When inflammation occurs, the pain is localized in the area of the greater trochanter (external projections on the femur).
- Iliac bursa. It is located in front of the iliac muscle. Due to the proximity of this bursa to the iliac joint, iliac bursa is sometimes confused with coxilis(inflammation of the hip joint). This type of bursitis is characterized by swelling and pain in the inner thigh, below the inguinal ligament. The pain is getting worse when bending the hip.
- Sciatic bursa. It is located near the ischial tuberosity, in the place where the muscles are attached to it. Ischial bursitis also causes pain that increases with hip flexion.
Trochanteric bursitis (trochanteritis) is much more common than the iliac and ischial bursitis. This bursitis often occurs in athletes, particularly women. This is due to the fact that women have wider hips, which causes rubbing of the soft tissues on the greater trochanter.
Hip bursitis symptoms
A typical symptom is a deep, sometimes burning pain in the hip. The pain can extend along the outside of the thigh. A person can not lie on the hurting side. The pain deepens with hip flexion and extension. Sometimes there are nocturnal pain in the hip. The pain may increase gradually or occur suddenly, after an injury. Often, at the time of such an injury, the person feels a click in his thigh.
Hip bursitis treatment
Treatment of hip bursitis is not complicated. Usually it is required to do exercises from physical therapy and take some anti-inflammatories.
In advanced cases, the injections of corticosteroids, physical therapy, and even surgery may be required.
Treatment begins with anti-inflammatory drugs. Next, the patient should limit leg movement to avoid movements that cause pain. After reducing pain, you can start doing special medical exercises. The type of exercise depends on the type of bursitis and physiological characteristics of the patient. Typically, physical therapy is aimed at stretching of the ilio-tibial tract and fixation strengthening the gluteal muscles.
In more complex cases, physical therapy is used (electrophoresis, ultrasound). Sometimes injections of glucocorticoids in the most painful area are prescribed. In exceptional cases, a surgical procedure is necessary. The principle of operation in trochanteric bursitis – is the reduction of ilio-tibial tract tension. Sometimes this procedure is accompanied by excision of the trochanteric bursae.
Complications and prognosis
Complications include the cases when the illness turns into a chronic condition and adhesive capsulitis is developing (inflammation of the joint bursa), which can severely limit mobility over time.
The prognosis for recovery is positive in most cases. Even after surgery, a person can fully return to normal life and even sport in a few months. Self-treatment is not desirable.